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101 HI : Health Informatics : Summer 2012

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Keep an eye on this page (visit this page daily, if you are registered in this course).

Required Readings:

  1. Adverse Events
  2. System: What is a system?
  3. Systems Theory
  4. Evidence-based Practice
  5. New draft federal law to use IT in health services
  6. Perot Systems successfully implements Hospital Information System in Abu Dhabi
  7. MoH launches Wareed to create health database and link 82 hospitals and clinics across the UAE
  8. WareedIntroductionAdvantagesObjectives … in Ajman … in Baraha … in Al Fujairah
  9. Google Docs : Spreadsheets
  10. Google Docs : Spreadsheets
  11. Information System
  12. Informatics
  13. Health Informatics
  14. Telehealth
  15. eHealth
  16. Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)
  17. Clinical Decision Support Systems
  18. Personal Health Record (PHR) 
  19. mHealth
  20. Cloud Computing
  21. Electronic Health Record

Required Videos:

  1. Tour of Practice Fusion b (4:48)
  2. PracticeFusion How to Log in (1:48)
  3. Allergy Management Tutorial (2:12)
  4. Care Summary Record (2:11)
  5. Charting Demo (7:00)
  6. Vital Signs: Record Vital Signs (C8) (1:11)
  7. Charting: Diagnoses, Medications and Allergies (2:54)
  8. Clinical Summaries (C13) (1:49)
  9. Clinical Decision Support Rules (0:59)
  10. Demographics: Record Demographics (C7) (1:19)
  11. Demographics: Editing Patient Demographics (1:12)
  12. Drug Interactions Checking (1:36)
  13. Drug Interaction Checks (C2) (1:56)
  14. e-Prescribing Training (15:49)
  15. e-Prescribing Training (15:56)
  16. Immunization : Create Immunization Record (0:54)
  17. Lab: Ordering Lab Results (0:55)
  18. Medication List: Maintain Medication List (C5) (1:39)
  19. Medication Management Tutorial (3:20)
  20. Patient Electronic Access (1:26)
  21. Problem List: Maintain Problem List (C3) (1:47)
  22. Reminders: Sending Patient Reminders (M4) (1:07)
  23. Scheduling Appointments (1:24)
  24. Smoking Status: Record Smoking Status (C9) (0:57)
  25. Training for Nurses (12:12)
  26. Training for PA/NP/Nurse (33:35:00)
  27. Training for Physicians (23:11)
  28. Training for Practice Staff (16:38)


  1. Key Challenges Facing Health Care Systems Worldwide
  2. Use of Information System
  3. Pubmed Search for Research Article in APA format

Recommended Readings:

  1. Google Docs Help Pages

Recommended Videos:

  1. What is Evidence-Based Practice? Presented by Dr. Mark Ebell (52:43)
  2. Practice Fusion Videos

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June 10th, 2012 at 8:14 am

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APA … What Students need to know

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May 10th, 2012 at 8:44 am

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Telehealth is “the use of communications and information technology to deliver health services and exchange health information when distance separates the participants.”[Elford, 1998].

Many technologies are used for telehealth including: telephones, videophones, personal computers (PCs), videoconferencing systems, store and forward systems (S&F) and specialized telehealth workstations.

A telehealth system is made of the following components:

  1. Hardware, e.g. computer, workstation and peripherals. Peripheral devices are the devices that are connected to a workstation and allow the local health professional to capture clinical images, video, sounds and vitals, such as otoscope, electronic stethoscope, and general exam camera.
  2. Software installed on the workstation,
  3. Database to store patient information,
  4. Network or telecommunications link,
  5. Humans e.g. users, clinicians and patients,
  6. Policies and protocols.


  1. Basic Introduction to Telehealth (4:12)
  2. Telehealth: VA Experience (9:08)
  3. A Demonstration of a Telehealth Mobile Solution (4:01)

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April 17th, 2012 at 5:01 am

Health Information Exchange

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HIE is the capability of health information systems to electronically exchange information with other systems, while maintaining the integrity and authenticity of the information being exchanged.

It involves the ability to share clinical and administrative information electronically to enable health care providers and administrative worker to make better decisions, be more effective and more efficient.

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March 21st, 2012 at 4:06 am

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Cloud Computing

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  • Cloud computing is the use of the internet and remote servers to store data and use applications.
  • Cloud computing allows for the provision of shared resources, software, and information to local computers and other devices as a metered service over the Internet.
  • Cloud computing allows users to use applications without installing them on local computers.
  • Cloud computing allows users to access their data and files using any computer with internet access.
  • This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, and processing.
  • Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage resources without requiring users to know the location and other details of the computing infrastructure.
  • An example of cloud computing is Hotmail or Gmail. Users only need a computer connected to the internet to start sending emails.


Written by admin

February 26th, 2012 at 9:41 am

EP : Hospitals’ Use of Facebook

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This is an EP oppuntunity :

In less than 100 words, describe how ONE HOSPITAL utilized Facebook to support the fulfillment of its goals.

Deadline: February 29th . Extended to March 5th.

Make sure to include the link to this hospital facebook page.


Written by admin

February 19th, 2012 at 11:13 am

Web 2.0

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Web 2.0 is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide Web that is focused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information online. Web 2.0 refers to websites and applications that facilitate participatory information sharing,  interoperability, user-centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web.

A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue in contrast to websites where users are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them.

Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites such as Facebook, blogs like this site, wikis, and video sharing sites such as YouTube.

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February 13th, 2012 at 1:53 pm

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EP: A Course Relevant Youtube

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This a chance to earn 1 EP (Extra point = Bonus) .

Search through youtube for a video that is relevant to one of course modules. Look through course objectives and outcomes (syllabus) and find a YouTube that helps in achieving one of these objectives/outcomes. Try to find video that is shorter than 5 minutes that is published in 2010 or 2011 or 2012.

Post the link as reply to this post.

I will publish the responses that will earn the 1 EP. You may try more than once, but only 1 point is possible.

Deadline: End of April.

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February 3rd, 2012 at 11:35 am

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Protected: EP: Systems Theory

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February 3rd, 2012 at 10:49 am

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Google Speadsheets

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  • A free online spreadsheet program
  • Simple to use
  • Files can be shared and managed in collaboration with others, instantly.
  • Allows complex formulas, conditional formatting, automatic translation.
  • Functions. Perform a huge number of functions in the browser, from the common (sum, average, count) to the specific, such as engineering and math calculations or finance formulas.
  • Conditional formatting.  For example, a cell can be set to turn red if it exceeds a set figure.
  • Insert forms, drawings, scripts, images, gadgets and charts into a spreadsheet.
  • Add comments to a spreadsheet, a highly useful feature for collaboration.


  1. Google docs spreadsheet tutorial (9:45)
  2. Create a new Google Spreadsheet (0:24)
  3. Using Google Spreadsheets (3:22)
  4. How to set up a Google spreadsheet (3:02)
  5. Freezing Rows and Columns in a Google Spreadsheet (4:23)a
  6. Insert a chart into a Google Spreadsheet (0:57)
  7. Google Spreadsheets Graphing Pt 1 of 4 (1:27)
  8. Google Spreadsheets Graphing Pt 2 of 4 (1:26)
  9. Google Spreadsheet More with Formulas pt 1 of 3 (2:13)
  10. Google Spreadsheet More with Formulas pt 2 of 3 (2:20)
  11. Performing Queries in a Google Spreadsheet (1:49)

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February 2nd, 2012 at 7:19 am

Information System

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An information system (IS) is defined as the organized combination of people, hardware, software, communication networks, and data resources that collects, stores, processes, transforms, displays, transmits disseminates and disposes information in accordance with defined procedures.

  • Disposition: the act or means of getting rid of something.
  • Dissemination: the distribution of information broadly.
  • Processing: the manipulation of data in accordance with established instructions, manually or by computer. Processing by computer is the manipulation of data in accordance with its instructions, or programming.
  • Transmission: the process of sending information from one point to another.

An IS may be automated (e.g., a computerized information system) or manual (e.g., a library’s card catalog).

Any IS is made of 6 components: hardware, software, data/database, network, policies and procedures and people.

An Information System (IS) consists of six components, namely:

  1. Humans, which consists of IT specialists (such as a Database Administrator or Network Engineer) and end-users (such as doctors, nurses, etc…).
  2. Hardware, which consists of all the physical aspects of an information system, ranging from peripherals to computer parts and servers.
  3. Software, which consists of System Software, Application Software and Utility Software.
  4. Networks, which consists of communication media and network support.
  5. Data, which consists of all the knowledge and databases in the IS.
  6. Policies and procedures that governs the utilization, use and management of the information system.


  1. What is Information Systems? (1:38)
  2. Information Systems (0:59)
  3. Healthcare Information Systems (4:43)

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January 31st, 2012 at 10:15 am

Electronic Health Record

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  • “The Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a secure, real-time, point-of-care, patient-centric information resource for clinicians. The EHR aids clinicians’ decision making by providing access to patient health record information where and when they need it and by incorporating evidence-based decision support. The EHR automates and streamlines the clinician’s workflow, closing loops in communication and response that result in delays or gaps in care. The EHR also supports the collection of data for uses other than direct clinical care, such as billing, quality management, outcomes reporting, resource planning, and public health disease surveillance and reporting.” HIMSS Electronic Health Record – Definitional Model Version 1.1 – 2003
  • “A longitudinal collection of personal health information of a single individual, entered or accepted by health care providers, and stored electronically. The record may be made available at any time to providers, who have been authorized by the individual, as a tool in the provision of health care services. The individual has access to the record and can request changes to its content. The transmission and storage of the record is under strict security.” Federal/Provincial/ Territorial Advisory Committee on Health Infostructure (2001)
  • Simply, it is a repository (collection) of information related to patient’s health in electronic (computer) form.


 Benefits of Electronic Health Record:

Health information technology includes interoperable electronic records, e-prescribing, physician order entry systems, and clinical decision support systems. Health information technology can reduce errors, improve coordination, and diminish administrative inefficiencies. Properly implemented and widely adopted, HIT would save money and significantly improve health care quality. (RAND)


Systems Theory

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The world we live in is a complex system composed of subsystems that interact among each other with each having clearly defined boundaries and coherent dynamics. Systems theory was developed by biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1930s to simplify world complexity to human mind and make it more understandable (von Bertalanffy, 1962). The development of the theory came as a result of the author’s perceived need for a theory to guide research in multiple fields. His theory helped to provide a common framework that created shared and common language that scientists from different disciplines can use to communicate their findings. Simply put, systems theory is used to understand how things around us work.

Systems theory looks at the world as a system composed of smaller subsystems. Systems as a representation of life phenomena are used by humanity in every day life to describe the functioning of these phenomena. For example, a hospital is a system with inputs, processes and outputs. The hospital itself is a component of a larger system, health care system. The health care system, banking system, educational system, judicial system and other systems comprise the socio-economic-political system within which we live.

Significance of Systems Theory to Health Care Management
Systems theory can be used to clearly and concisely understand health care structures, processes and outcomes processes and their interactions within a health care system. Systems theory can be used as a framework to describe the components of systems and the relationships between these components, the boundaries of the system, the goals of the system, and system’s ability to change and adapt in response to internal and external forces. Systems theory and thinking can help us understand how health care organizations and systems behave and it allows us to clearly assess, visualize, analyze and understand the structure, processes, and feedback loops that make up the organization. This correct and clear understanding of the organization as a system is a necessity to be able to manage organizations effectively and efficiently and to achieve organization’s goals.

System Definition
A system is a collection of independent but interrelated elements or components organized in a meaningful way to accomplish an overall goal. The function of any system is to convert or process materials, energy, and/or information (inputs) into a product or outcome for use within the system, or outside of the system (the environment) or both.

Definition of Key Terms

Inputs include raw material, energy and resources processed to produce the outputs of the organization. Examples include information, money, nurses’ effort, physician’s time, fuel, energy, time, individual effort, & any raw material of some kind.

Elements or components are the things, parts, or substances that make up the system. These parts may be humans, material, equipment, etc. Elements have attributes or characteristics that can be measured or described such as size, color, volume, quantity, temperature, and mass.
Throughput is the processes used by the system to convert raw materials or energy (inputs) from the environment into products or services that are usable by either the system itself or the environment. Examples include, thinking, physical examination of patients, diagnosing, planning, decision-making, writing prescription, taking vital signs, operating on a patient, constructing, sorting, making a speech, sharing information, meeting in groups, discussing, melting, shaping, hammering, etc.

Output is the product or service which results from the system’s throughput or processing of technical, social, financial & human input. Examples include health services, better health, software programs, documents, decisions, laws, rules, money, assistance, cars, clothing, bills, etc.
Feedback is information about some aspect of data or energy processing that can be used to evaluate & monitor the system & to guide it to more effective performance. How many patients were are seen in 2 hours clinic? How man medical errors were committed in a hospital? Why were mistakes made? HealthCareReportCard.com is an example of how hospitals are doing with certain diagnoses. Hospital accreditation reports are an example as are patient satisfaction surveys, sales reports, and test results.

Subsystem is a system which is a part of a larger system. They can work parallel to each other or in a series with each other. Information system is an example of a subsystem in a hospital. Medical staff as an organization is a subsystem of the hospital.

Dynamic system is any system that continuously influences and changes its environment and is being influenced and changed by its environment. Dynamic systems are usually composed of components that are structured and interrelated in such a way that a change in one component necessarily affects other components of the system. A hospital in Amman is an example of a dynamic system where it influences and changes its environment (health, quality of life) and is being influenced by its environment (restructuring to provide new needed services). On the other hand, a static system is defined as any system that does not change over time in relation to environment. To survive, systems are better off being dynamic rather than static. Evidence based practice in health care is an example of how health care services are dynamic and not static.

Open system is defined as a system that interact with its environment exchanging raw materials and energy for services and/or goods produced by the system. Health care facilities, hospitals, families, humans, cardiovascular system, banks, etc are examples of open systems. A hospital produces health services through practice, health care professionals through training and knowledge through research. In return it receives money, raw materials, appreciation, and energy from its environment.

Any system must have a goal. The goal is the overall purpose for existence of the system. Examples include; treating patients, to educate student nurses, to produce knowledge, to manufacture candy, to make coffee, and so on.

System Characteristics
Most systems have the following common characteristics:

  • All systems have common elements. These are input, throughput or process, output, feedback, control, environment, and goal.
  • Systems have varying degrees of complexity.
  • The organized components of a system comprise a unified whole that is greater than the sum of its components.
  • To be viable and successful, a system must be goal-directed, able to adapt to changing environment, technology and circumstances, and be governed by feedback and must value continuous leaning and development, creativity and innovation. And to survive, a system must save some of its output to maintain itself.
  • The structure of systems is defined by its components (parts) and processes.
  • Various system components have functional and structural relationships between each other and are organized in a way to accomplish a specific function or set of functions.
  • Systems exchange material, information and/or energy beyond its boundary with other systems, through input and output processes.
  • To be part of the system any element must have a relationship with at least one element of the system. Any element which has no relationship with any other element of the system cannot be a part of that system.

Organization as a System
Human social groups (organizations) exist and interact to produce, consume and exchange goods and services. It is helpful for understanding to think of organizations as systems. A system is an organized collection of independent but interrelated elements or components to accomplish an overall goal. Simply put, an organization as a system has various inputs that are processed to produce outputs. A continuous feedback between the different components of the system ensures that the system is accomplishing the goals of the organization (system). A system can be the entire organization, or any of its departments, groups, or processes.

Organizations (systems) have inputs, processes and outputs. Inputs include resources such as human resources, equipment, computers, raw materials, money, technologies and information. Inputs are processed to produce the outputs of the organization. Outputs are the results of the processes of the organization. Outputs can be goods or services. Examples of goods are food, clothes, equipment and cars. Organizations produce services such as transportation services, education, and health care. Health care industry produces services such as providing health care, protecting against communicable diseases, and providing food services in hospitals. Feedback comes from multiple sources; from the managers, workers who perform processes, customers who use system services, newspapers and political leaders.

Organizations are composed of numerous subsystems, as well. Complexity of an organization is determined in part by the number of subsystems it has. Each subsystem has its own boundaries, inputs, processes and outputs with an overall goal for the subsystem. Common examples of subsystems are departments, units, projects, teams, or processes.

Organizations are defined by their mission, strategic plan, goals, policies and procedures, organizational charts, job descriptions and legal documents. Feedback within the organizational systems is maintained or controlled by its legal documents, policies and procedures, budgets and quality management programs. These managerial documents provide the standards and benchmarks for evaluating and improving organization’s and individual’s performance.

Hospital as a System
Systems theory concepts and principles can been applied to understand and explain hospitals and their operation. A hospital is defined as “any medical facility with an organized medical and professional staff and beds available for continuous hospitalization of patients formally admitted to it for medical observation, care, diagnosis, or surgical and non-surgical treatment” (Pan American Health Organization, 2004). Another definition is that a hospital is “an institution which provides beds, meals, and constant nursing care for its patients while they undergo medical therapy at the hands of professional physicians. In carrying out these services, the hospital is striving to restore its patients to health” (Miller 1997).

Hospitals are open systems that interact with the environment to complete necessary trades for survival of the system, growth, and fulfillment of systems’ goal. A hospital is a subsystem that exists within a hierarchy of other systems. King Abdullah University Hospital is a subsystem of the Jordanian health care system. Additionally, Hospitals are complex systems, since they contain large number of subsystems such as the radiology department, nursing services, housekeeping, food services, laundry, laboratory department and so. Each of these subsystems can be looked at as a system of its own.

Hospital systems consist of a pattern of organized relations where different components of the system are related to each other in a particular way. Organizational structures and charts constitute a graphical representation of these relationships. Hospital bylaws, rules, policies and procedures regulate these relationships.

Hospitals are subsystems of overall health care system of a nation. For example, hospitals in Amman are considered to be subsystems of the health care system in Jordan which is defined as the aggregate of all health care authorities and organizations that provide, finance, or monitor the provision of health care services to the inhabitants or visitors of Jordan and include hospitals, individual practitioners, health care centers, insurers, and other entities.

Information System: Another Example
An “information system” is defined as the organized combination of people, hardware, software, communication networks, and data resources that collects, stores, processes, transforms, displays, transmits disseminates and disposes information in accordance with defined procedures. An information system may be automated (e.g., a computerized information system) or manual (e.g., a library’s card catalog). Other examples of systems are health care system, hospital, and university.


  1. Pan American Health Organization, Health Analysis and Information Systems Area. Regional Core Health Data Initiative; Indicators Glossary. Washington DC, 2004.
  2. Miller, T.S. (1997) The Birth of the Hospital in the Byzantine Empire. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  3. von Bertalanffy, Ludwig. General System Theory – A Critical Review. General Systems 1962; VII: 1-20.

Written by admin

January 21st, 2012 at 7:09 am


with 2,790 comments


A system is an organized group of independent but interrelated elements or components comprising a whole with each element related to other elements.

  • A collection or a group of independent but interrelated components or elements organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions. The organized components comprise a unified whole.
  • Any component that has no relationship with any other component of the system, cannot be a part of that system.
    The components of a system interface in order to facilitate the ‘flow’ of information, matter or energy.
  • A collection of component ideas, processes or objects which has an input and an output.


  1. System thinking: Introduction (2:11)
  2. What is Systems Thinking? (2:20)
  3. Systems thinking is a way of appreciating complex social problems (1:59)
  4. A  day in the life of Sydney Children’s Hospital (8:59)
  5. Complex adaptive systems (1:01)
  6. Complex Adaptive System Theory by a nurse manager (4:47)
  7. A Day in the Life of a  Beth Israel Hospital in Boston (hospital is a system) (10:59)

See Also:

  1. Systems Theory


Written by admin

January 21st, 2012 at 7:01 am

Health Informatics

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Health informatics is the intersection of information science, computer science, and health care. It deals with the resources, devices, and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, dissemination and use of information in health and biomedicine.

Health informatics is the study and application of methods to improve the management of data, information and knwoledge relevant to patient care and community health.

Health informatics tools include not only computers but also clinical guidelines, health care terminologies, and information and communication systems.

Sub-domains of or health care informatics include: clinical informatics, nursing informatics, imaging informatics, consumer health informatics, public health informatics, dental informatics, clinical research informatics, bioinformatics, veterinary informatics, and pharmacy informatics.


  1. What is Healthcare Informatics? by Stephan Kudayba (6:04)
  2. What is Health Informatics? by Dr. David Zitner (3:44)
  3. How one hospital is using health informatics to provide health care (4:40)
  4. Texas Children’s Hospital-Healthcare Information Systems (4:43)
  5. Health Informatics as defined by Edward Shortliffe (8:56)
  6. Informatics and Health Informatics by Don Detmer (3:17)

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January 21st, 2012 at 6:08 am


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Informatics is the study of information, or more specifically, it is the term used to refer to the application of computer technology to the management of information. Informatics is primarily concerned with the structure, creation, management, storage, retrieval, dissemination and transfer of information. Informatics also includes studying the application of information in organizations, on its usage and the interaction between people, organizations and information systems.


  1. What is Informatics? (2:05)
  2. University of Iowa View on Informatics (5:04)
  3. What is Informatics? by Edward Shortiffe (2:08)
  4. Informatics and Health Informatics by Don Detmer (3:17)


Written by admin

January 21st, 2012 at 5:50 am

Supply Chain Management Software

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A Supply Chain Management Software (SCMS), is a specialized electronic information System for requisitioning, procurement, receipt, handling, distribution, and charge capture of supply and asset inventory control.

Key Features of Supply Chain Management Software:

  • Order Management
    SCMS can dramatically accelerate the execution of the entire order-to-delivery cycle by helping hospitals to more productively generate and track sales orders.
  • Dynamic Scheduling of Deliveries
    SCMS enables the dynamic scheduling of supplier deliveries to more effectively meet demand.
  • Purchasing and Procurement
    SCMS can fully automate and streamline all activities and tasks associated with  sourcing, purchasing, and payables.
  • Inventory Management
    SCMS can improve the way organizations track and manage their supplies of raw materials and components needed for providing health services.
  • Forecasting and Planning
    With a supply chain software, hospitals can more accurately anticipate demand, and plan their procurement accordingly. As a result, they can avoid unnecessary purchases of supplies, eliminate service over-runs, and prevent the need to store excess supplies in stores.
  • EDI for Supply Chain Management
    SCMS throguh Electronic Data Interchange allows organization link to its trading partners to electronically send transactions such as purchase orders, price/catalogs and invoices electronically.
  • RFID and Barcoding
    SCMS integrates RFID and Barcoding technologies in their operations.
  • User-Defined Cost Centers
    SCMS allows users to define cost centers as per facilities policies.
  • Accountablity and Tracking
    SCMS allows to track movement, and receipt of supplies and equipment and helps answers for the “who, what, when, and where” associated with the receipt, movement and consumption of each supply item.
  • Accurate Capture of Data and Cost Information
    Scanning technology used by SCMS facilitates ease of data capture while ensuring accuracy and point-of-care charge capture.
  • Surgical Instrument Management
    SCM helps hospitals gain greater visibility and control of surgical instruments, enabling hospitals to reduce costs through optimized instrument inventory levels, improved instrument utilization rates and increased productivity of staff assembling surgical trays. This will help hospital bottom line and enhance customer satisfaction by reducing the number of delayed or cancelled surgeries.
  • Efficient ordering
    Allows for more efficient ordering of supplies based on a more accurate overall picture of available inventories
  • Waiting time
    Helps to reduce wait time for supplies
  • Mobility
    SCMS allows for using a variety of delivery mediums (Desktop, PDAs, Web-based, and hard copy).
  • Return Management
    SCMS can simplify and accelerate the inspection and handling of defective, near expiry or expired supplies.
  • Contract Management
    SCMS helps organizations manage the creation of supplies purchasing contracts.
  • Management Reporting & Notification
    SCMS allows for vendor and contract compliance reporting; ad-hoc reporting; automated notifications. Reporting includes receiving reports, consumption reports, cost center reporting, and damage/return item reporting


National Drug Code (NDC)

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The NDC is a universal number that identifies a drug.

A National Drug Code (NDC) number is a unique number assigned to a product that identifies the manufacturer, drug, packaging size, and type. It appears on all drug labels

The National Drug Code (NDC) is a universal product code used as an identifier for every unique commercially available drug product for human use in the USA.

Developed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1969.

FDA used the Drug Listing Act of 1972 to create a current list of all drugs manufactured, prepared, propagated, compounded, or processed by a drug establishment registered under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

The NDC system was originally established by Medicare as an essential part of an outpatient drug reimbursement program and as a method to identify drugs during commercial distribution.

NDC is used for

  • NDC is used for institutional billing.
  • The NDC is used to identify the manufacturer and the medicine
  • NDC  is used as identifier for drugs intended for human use.
  • The NDC is used to report prescribed drugs and biologics to enhance claim reporting .

NDC is used by

  • NDC numbers are used throughout the drug supply chain. Users extend from
    pharmaceutical firms,
    distribution system,
    medical community,
    insurance industry, and

NDC can help to reduce or prevent medication errors, by assisting in the safe dispensing of medications. Outpatient pharmacists may use the NDC system to avoid confusion with look-alike/sound-alike drugs.

NDC help in the computerization of medication-related processes in health settings:

  • Supply chain
  • Ordering
  • Identifying
  • Decision support
  • Effectiveness evaluation

NDC Code is :

  • Up to 11 digits in length
  • Separated by hyphens (-) into three segments
  • Complete NDC is formatted 5-4-2, for a total of 11 digits:  12345-1234-12
  • The NDC is found on the drug container (that is vial, bottle, tube).
  • The first five digits identify the manufacturer of the drug and are assigned by the Food and Drug Administration. The remaining digits are assigned by the manufacturer and identify the specific product and package size.

NDC Code is comprised of 3-segments :

  1. The first segment is the “labeler” code.
    The first five digits identify the manufacturer of the drug and are assigned by the Food and Drug Administration.
    4-5 characters.
  2. The second segment is the “product” code.
    It identifies the strength, dosage form and formulation.
    3-4 characters.
  3. The third segment is the “package” code.
    identifies package size.
    1-2 characters


Written by admin

December 13th, 2011 at 8:57 am

Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System

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The Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) is a set of health care procedure codes. Commonly pronounced Hick-Picks.

The Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) was established in 1978 to provide a standardized coding system for describing the specific items and services provided in the delivery of health care.

  • HCPCS is the standard HIPAA code set for reporting supplies, orthotic and prosthetic devices, and durable medical equipment. In combination with the Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes, it is also used to report physician and other health care services.
  • HCPCS is one of the formats in which drugs and biologics may be coded for reimbursement and other reporting for non-retail pharmacy settings. (NDC is an alternative. The HIPAA regulations do not at present designate a single standard for this purpose.)
  • Health insurance plans process billions of claims every year. HCPCS codes were developed to help ensure that claims could be processed in a consistent and simplified way. HCPCS codes are divided into three subsystems: level I, level II and level III, each designated for a specific purpose.
  1. HCPCS Codes – Level ILevel I HCPCS codes are made up of CPT-4 codes (a numeric coding system devised by the American Medical Association). Health care professionals use this notation to identify services and procedures, for which they bill insurance programs. Level I HCPCS codes consist of 5 numeric digits.
  2. HCPCS Codes – Level II (Alpha-numeric codes)
    Level II HCPCS codes identify products, supplies, materials and services which are not included in the CPT-4 code, such as ambulance services, prosthetics, medical equipment and supplies when used outside a medical office. Level II HCPCS codes are also called alpha-numeric codes because they consist of one letter followed by 4 numeric digits.
  3. HCPCS – Level III (Local Codes)
    Level III HCPCS codes are developed by Medicaid State Agencies, Medicare contractors and private insurers for use in specific programs and jusrisdictions. HCPCS Level III codes are also called local codes. These codes allow insurers to electronically process claims for new services for which a level I or level II code has not yet been established.


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November 22nd, 2011 at 4:27 am

Interoperability : Defined

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Written by admin

November 8th, 2011 at 1:29 am

Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs)

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Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs): A classification system that groups patients according to principal diagnosis, presence of a surgical procedure, age, presence or absence of significant comorbidities or complications, and other relevant criteria.

Diagnosis-related group (DRG) is a U.S. system to group and classify hospital cases into different groups (more than 500) on the basis of diagnosis/diagnoses, procedures, age, sex, discharge status, and the presence of complications or comorbidities.

A DRG is based upon the principal ICD-9-CM diagnosis code, ICD-9-CM surgical procedure code, age of patient, and expected length of stay in the hospital that will be reimbursed, independently of the charges that the hospital may have incurred

Cases within each category are similar clinically and are expected to use the same level of hospital resources

This system was developed for Medicare use as part of the prospective payment system.

DRGs have been used in the US since 1983 to determine how much Medicare pays participating hospitals. A DRG is a payment category that is used to classify patients, especially Medicare patients, for the purpose of reimbursing hospitals for each case in a given category with a fixed fee regardless of the actual costs incurred.

List of 2010 Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG’s)
List of 2006 Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG’s)

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November 4th, 2011 at 3:45 am

VA Telehealth: Real-Time Access To Care

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June 28th, 2011 at 4:10 pm

Posted in Videos

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Distinguishing between data, information and knowledge

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June 16th, 2011 at 6:22 pm

Posted in Health Informatics

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University of Iowa View on Informatics

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June 16th, 2011 at 6:16 pm

Basic Introduction to Informatics

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June 16th, 2011 at 6:08 pm

101 HI Summer 2011

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Activities and Assignments:

  1. Gmail email account (first week)
    Establish a Gmail email account before the end of first week. Send me an email (to drhayajneh@gmail.com) informing me that you did so. In the body of the email write your full name and ID.
  2. Twitter Account (first week)
    Establish a twitter account and start following me at http://twitter.com/#!/hayajneh and secure at least 20 “follows” before the end of the semester.
  3. Facebook account (first week)
    Establish a Facebook account and follow (like) the following pages:
    http://www.facebook.com/pages/101-HI-Health-Informatics/348168868526639 ,
    Health-Informatics-Social-Media-in-Health-Care-and-Higher-Education, and
    Note: I accept students’ friendship as long as their account portray clearly their true identity).
  4. Facebook page (end of semester)
    Create a Facebook page and secure 20 likes for your page before the end of the semester.
  5. Spreadsheet (7th week)
    Using Google Docs, prepare a spreadsheet that contains 25 rows and 5 columns of fictitious data (that makes sense) and at least 2 calculated columns. Share the spreadsheet with me and gran me the ability to edit.
  6. Website (10th week)
    Develop a website, using WordPress. Create at least 5 posts, 2 pages, embed a youtube, include links to external sites, change the original theme to a different one. Send me the link to your website by email when it is completed.
  7. HIT Literature Review (12th week)
    Utilizing at least 5 research papers, write a (400-600 words) literature review about one of the course topics (modules). Use APA guidelines to format your paper. Submit the paper printed along with the 5 research papers that it is based on. Check this resource: http://web.pdx.edu/~bertini/pdf/literature_review.pdf
  8. Google Doc (12 week)
    Prepare your literature review (assignment # 7) using Google docs and share the document with me using sharing function of Google docs.

Required Videos:

  1. Informatics: Basic Introduction to Informatics (2:05)
  2. How one hospital is using health informatics to provide health care (4:40)
  3. What is Healthcare Informatics? (6:04)
  4. What is Health Informatics? by Dr. David Zitner (3:44)
  5. University of Iowa (where I studied) View on Informatics (5:04)
  6. Distinguishing between data, information and knowledge (1:48)
  7. What is nursing informatics? (6:59)
  8. VA Telehealth: Real-Time Access To Care (9:08)
  9. PACS – Before and After ()
  10. Picture Archiving and Communication Systems ()
  11. Improved Information Improves Healthcare (3:02)
  12. Health Information Technology: Key to Quality Improvement (3:34)
  13. A look at the VA electronic health record: ABC News report (3:17)
  14. Computerized Order Entry System has reduced medical errors (2:03)
  15. Personal Health Records Explained (9:45)
  16. Electronic Health Record – CBS Sunday Morning (9:49)

Required Readings:

  1. UAE and Qatar top the list of Twitter users in the Middle East
  2. Health IT’s future is wide open (source)
  3. Unnecessary tests reduced by EMR alerts
  4. Corniche Hospital uses tagging to secure safety of newborns in Abu Dhabi
  5. Aussie healthcare system for Middle East hospital
  6. Electronic Health Records and Electronic Prescribing: Promise and Pitfalls. 2008. by Caitlin M. Cusack, MD, MPH, FACOG (this reading is posted in blackboard)
  7. Computerized Physician Order Entry: Fact Sheet
  8. Patients pick hospitals for their social media presence
  9. E-Health Case Study: Roshan Telemedicine
  10. New e-services to assess quality of nursing service in UAE
  11. Mayo Clinic launches social network




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June 12th, 2011 at 5:19 am

Posted in Courses

Tagged with

Smart Slippers

with 3,524 comments


Written by admin

April 21st, 2011 at 8:50 am

What is a personal health record, and what can it do for you?

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April 19th, 2011 at 6:14 am

Personal Health Records Explained

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April 19th, 2011 at 6:07 am

Personal Health Records: An Example icer-2-go

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Written by admin

April 19th, 2011 at 5:59 am

Personal Health Record (PHR)

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What is a PHR?
An electronic record of health-related information on an individual that conforms to nationally recognized interoperability standards and that can be drawn from multiple sources while being managed, shared, and controlled by the individual.

A personal health record or PHR is typically a health record (a collection of important information) that is initiated and maintained by an individual. It is different than patient  health record, which includes  information about one’s health compiled and maintained by healthcare providers. An ideal PHR would provide a complete and accurate summary of the health history of an individual by gathering data from many sources and making this information accessible online to anyone who has the authorization to view the information.

The information contained in a PHR will come from different healthcare providers (doctor, dentist, physio-therapists, …), but it is maintained and managed by the individual

PHR allows patients to store and access their health information electronically. PHR helps an individual plan and document any care or treatment he/she is receiving. PHRs have the potential to give individuals more control over their health information — collecting, using, and sharing it as they see fit.

Uses and Benefits of PHR:

  • Collect and store patient information;
  • Collect and store information from a patient’s health care provider;
  • Convert clinical information into more easily understood language;
  • Describe to patients ways to improve their health based on their information;
  • Make it possible for patients to take action on their information;
  • Track appointments, vaccinations, and other services;
  • Improve the quality of care you they receive;
  • Provide timely information when receiving emergency care and ensure access to vital health information;
  • Reduce costs by eliminating duplicate tests

In general, PHRs contain the following types of health information:

  • allergies and adverse drug reactions
  • chronic diseases
  • family history
  • illnesses and hospitalizations
  • imaging reports (e.g. x-ray)
  • immunization records
  • laboratory test results
  • medications and dosing including over the counter medications and herbal remedies
  • surgeries and other procedures
  • vaccinations
  • and Observations of Daily Living (ODLs)




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April 19th, 2011 at 4:44 am

World Wide Web in Plain English

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April 6th, 2011 at 10:39 am

Why Use Blade Server Systems? .. Video

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April 6th, 2011 at 10:25 am

Blade Server .. Video

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April 6th, 2011 at 10:23 am

What is a Host Server? A Video

with 111 comments


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April 6th, 2011 at 10:17 am

What is a server?

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April 6th, 2011 at 10:14 am


with 70 comments


In information systems, a server is any combination of hardware or software designed to provide services to clients. When used alone, the term typically refers to a computer which may be running a server operating system, but is also used to refer to any software or dedicated hardware capable of providing services.

  • A computer that delivers information and software to other computers linked by a network.
  • A computer designated for supplying information in many forms, so that other computers can use it. Common servers are Web servers, proxy servers , mail servers, and file servers.
  • A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running.

Written by admin

April 6th, 2011 at 10:11 am


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  • mHealth is short for “mobile health.”
  • mHealth is term used to refer to provision of health care supported by mobile devices. The term is most commonly used in reference to using mobile communication devices, such as mobile phones and PDAs, for health services and information.
  • mHealth is not one single technology. mHealth is an ecosystem and takes advantage of a lot of existing, mature technology — hardware, software, local wireless communications and telecommunications infrastructure.
  • The mHealth field has emerged as a sub-segment of health informatics.
  • mHealth applications include the use of mobile devices in collecting community and clinical health data, delivery of healthcare information to practitioners, researchers, and patients, real-time monitoring of patient vital signs, and direct provision of care.


Written by admin

April 5th, 2011 at 6:37 am


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eHealth refers to the use of internet and other information and communications technologies in support of health and health-related fields, including health-care services, health surveillance, health literature, and health education, knowledge and research in the pursuit of enhancing health and healthcare.

  • “The application of Internet and other related technologies in the healthcare industry to improve the access, efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of clinical and business processes utilized by healthcare organizations, practitioners, patients, and consumers to improve the health status of patients. HIMSS News,Volume 13 Number 7, p. 12.
  • “e-health is defined as the use of advanced telecommunications such as the Internet, portable and other sophisticated devices, advanced networks and new design approaches aiming to support healthcare delivery and education. Thus, e-health refers to a fundamental redesign of healthcare processes based on the use and integration of electronic communication at all levels. It aims to lead to patient empowerment which describes the transition from a passive role where the patient is the recipient of care services to an active role where the patient is informed, has choices and is involved in the decision making process. e-Health: Current Status and Future Trends. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 106, 2004

eHealth Encompasses:

  • Telehealth consultations
  • e-Prescriptions
  • Provider credentialing
  • Communication of clinical data to providers
  • Chat rooms/forums to link providers and consumers
  • Consumer education
  • Patient satisfaction surveys
  • Personal health records


Written by admin

April 5th, 2011 at 6:24 am

Posted in Health Informatics

Tagged with , ,

Blade Server

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A blade server is a compact computer server (a tightly compressed computer processing unit). The blades are designed to work with the rack, as they do not have their own power, cooling or protective covers.

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April 5th, 2011 at 3:07 am


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Authentication is the procedure of determining whether someone is, in fact, who he/she declares to be. Authentication is generally required to access secure data or enter a secure area.

  • In information systems, user Authentication refers to the process of determining user’s identity as well as determining what a user is authorized to access {Who and What}.
  • Authentication typically involves the use of a user name and password; certificate, PIN, digital signature and other information that can be used to validate the identity over a network.
  • User authentication ensures that the right information gets to the right person.
  • Example: Hospital admission clerk accesses the information system using her username and password, which allows her access to the admission module of the system, but not other parts of the system.

وبالعربية الإستيقان أو التوثق من الشخصية وهي عملية التوثق من شخصية المستخدم الذي يسعى للوصول إلى بيانات ومعلومات محمية. وتحدد عملية التوثق الشخصية ومستوى الإطلاع (النفاذية) والصلاحيات المسموح بها لهذا الشخص

Written by admin

April 5th, 2011 at 2:59 am